Is HTTPS Proxy Secure?

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I am trying to access some senstive data on a blocked server, so I am using
proxy on HTTPS port. I think the proxy can cache anything. So I wonder what
kind of cached data it will look like on proxy? Over HTTPS layer, when the
encrption and and decryptiong occur? If a key is passed via proxy as well,
then even the data is encrypted, the proxy with the key can still know what
is going. What is the point of using SSL/HTTPS when the encrypted key is
passed in plain text first?

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