FAQ 8.44: How do I tell the difference between errors from the shell and perl?

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This message is one of several periodic postings to comp.lang.perl.misc
intended to make it easier for perl programmers to find answers to
common questions. The core of this message represents an excerpt
from the documentation provided with Perl.


8.44: How do I tell the difference between errors from the shell and perl?

    When you run a Perl script, something else is running the script for
    you, and that something else may output error messages. The script might
    emit its own warnings and error messages. Most of the time you cannot
    tell who said what.

    You probably cannot fix the thing that runs perl, but you can change how
    perl outputs its warnings by defining a custom warning and die

    Consider this script, which has an error you may not notice immediately.


            print "Hello World\n";

    I get an error when I run this from my shell (which happens to be bash).
    That may look like perl forgot it has a print() function, but my shebang
    line is not the path to perl, so the shell runs the script, and I get
    the error.

            $ ./test
            ./test: line 3: print: command not found

    A quick and dirty fix involves a little bit of code, but this may be all
    you need to figure out the problem.

            #!/usr/bin/perl -w
            BEGIN {
            $SIG = sub{ print STDERR "Perl: ", @_; };
            $SIG  = sub{ print STDERR "Perl: ", @_; exit 1};
            $a = 1 + undef;
            $x / 0;

    The perl message comes out with "Perl" in front. The BEGIN block works
    at compile time so all of the compilation errors and warnings get the
    "Perl:" prefix too.

            Perl: Useless use of division (/) in void context at ./test line 9.
            Perl: Name "main::a" used only once: possible typo at ./test line 8.
            Perl: Name "main::x" used only once: possible typo at ./test line 9.
            Perl: Use of uninitialized value in addition (+) at ./test line 8.
            Perl: Use of uninitialized value in division (/) at ./test line 9.
            Perl: Illegal division by zero at ./test line 9.
            Perl: Illegal division by zero at -e line 3.

    If I don't see that "Perl:", it's not from perl.

    You could also just know all the perl errors, and although there are
    some people who may know all of them, you probably don't. However, they
    all should be in the perldiag manpage. If you don't find the error in
    there, it probably isn't a perl error.

    Looking up every message is not the easiest way, so let perl to do it
    for you. Use the diagnostics pragma with turns perl's normal messages
    into longer discussions on the topic.

            use diagnostics;

    If you don't get a paragraph or two of expanded discussion, it might not
    be perl's message.


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