FAQ 4.36 How can I expand variables in text strings?

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4.36: How can I expand variables in text strings?

    (contributed by brian d foy)

    If you can avoid it, don't, or if you can use a templating system, such
    as "Text::Template" or "Template" Toolkit, do that instead. You might
    even be able to get the job done with "sprintf" or "printf":

            my $string = sprintf 'Say hello to %s and %s', $foo, $bar;

    However, for the one-off simple case where I don't want to pull out a
    full templating system, I'll use a string that has two Perl scalar
    variables in it. In this example, I want to expand $foo and $bar to
    their variable's values:

            my $foo = 'Fred';
            my $bar = 'Barney';
            $string = 'Say hello to $foo and $bar';

    One way I can do this involves the substitution operator and a double
    "/e" flag. The first "/e" evaluates $1 on the replacement side and turns
    it into $foo. The second /e starts with $foo and replaces it with its
    value. $foo, then, turns into 'Fred', and that's finally what's left in
    the string:

            $string =~ s/($\w+)/$1/eeg; # 'Say hello to Fred and Barney'

    The "/e" will also silently ignore violations of strict, replacing
    undefined variable names with the empty string. Since I'm using the "/e"
    flag (twice even!), I have all of the same security problems I have with
    "eval" in its string form. If there's something odd in $foo, perhaps
    something like "@{[ system "rm -rf /" ]}", then I could get myself in

    To get around the security problem, I could also pull the values from a
    hash instead of evaluating variable names. Using a single "/e", I can
    check the hash to ensure the value exists, and if it doesn't, I can
    replace the missing value with a marker, in this case "???" to signal
    that I missed something:

            my $string = 'This has $foo and $bar';
            my %Replacements = (
                    foo  => 'Fred',

            # $string =~ s/$(\w+)/$Replacements/g;
            $string =~ s/$(\w+)/
                    exists $Replacements ? $Replacements : '???'

            print $string;


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