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- Debian's policy regarding security updates
- Robert Glueck
May 3, 2005, 9:45 pm
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updates for their OS. From what I understand, it is as follows. Please
correct me if I'm wrong.
When a security vulnerability is discovered in a Linux package that's
part of the Debian distribution, Debian will attempt to prepare a fix
for it, first for stable (for all supported architectures) and perhaps
later then for unstable, and announce the fixes in a DSA. If they
managed to prepare a fix for unstable, it will be posted as such and
then after two days migrate automatically into the testing distro,
"after all dependencies have been fulfilled" (?).
For example, all of the 98 vulnerabilities that Debian issued DSA's for
so far in 2005 have been fixed for stable, and the great majority have
also been fixed for unstable. By now, all packages in the latter group
would have migrated into testing. Hence, I assume that the current
versions of all packages in the latter group in the testing distro have
received the security fix. For the rest, i.e. a small fraction of the
98 packages, the DSA states that "for the unstable distribution (sid)
these problems will be fixed soon."
The situation is thus fairly clear for stable: a vulnerability is
discovered, a fix is prepared, new deb packages are made for all
supported architectures, they are tested to make sure they don't break
any dependencies, and if everything is fine, they are released to the
For unstable and testing, the situation is less clear. If the Debian
developers have time, they will prepare a fix for the most recent
version of the affected package, which would be in unstable, release it
(as source only?), and after a short quarantine it would become part of
the testing distro. Are these updated packages in the testing distro
then tested with regard to breaking dependencies? Are they available as
deb packages, e.g. for the intel 86 architecture?
With regard to the packages about which the DSA said that "for the
unstable distribution (sid) these problems will be fixed soon", does
that mean that Debian still hasn't fixed them for unstable (and
testing)? Or did they fix them and they are now in the testing distro
but Debian simply failed to update the advisory about this fact?
If this newsgroup isn't quite the right place to post this query, which
Debian newsgroup, forum or mailing list would be the appropriate place?
Pertinent sections of the Debian Security FAQ:
Q: How is security handled in Debian?
A: Once the security team receives a notification of an incident, one or
more members review it and consider its impact on the stable release of
Debian (i.e. if it's vulnerable or not). If our system is vulnerable, we
work on a fix for the problem. The package maintainer is contacted as
well, if they didn't contact the security team already. Finally, the fix
is tested and new packages are prepared, which are then compiled on all
stable architectures and uploaded afterwards. After all of that is done,
an advisory is published.
Q: How is security handled for testing and unstable?
A: The short answer is: it's not. Testing and unstable are rapidly
moving targets and the security team does not have the resources needed
to properly support those. If you want to have a secure (and stable)
server you are strongly encouraged to stay with stable. However, the
security secretaries will try to fix problems in testing and unstable
after they are fixed in the stable release.
Q: How does testing get security updates?
A: Security updates will migrate into the testing distribution via
unstable. They are usually uploaded with their priority set to high,
which will reduce the quarantine time to two days. After this period,
the packages will migrate into testing automatically, given that they
are built for all architectures and their dependencies are fulfilled in
Re: Debian's policy regarding security updates
Indeed. (Disclaimer: I'm a Debian-using sysadmin, but speak only for
the guy I shave, and then only on a good day, following application of
Please note that by "the Debian developers", here, you're referring to
the individual package maintainers, not the Security Team. As I
understand it, the Security Team make no promises as a general rule
about releasing updates to fix holes in any branch other than Debian-stable.
The "Debian developers" you refer to, above, will probably apply new
security fixes incidentally during the course of releasing into
Debian-unstable (and thus, after quarantine, into Debian-testing)
sundry upstream revisions / new versions. But they're not guaranteed to
be diligent about security _per se_: They're just 1000+ run-of-the-mill
package maintainers. So, they might apply timely security fixes, or
they might screw it up. The Security Team might backstop them if they
screw up -- or not.
So, I hear you ask, what's a body to do -- if that body is inclined to
run a branch other than Debian-stable?
Here's my solution: Put lines for both -testing and -unstable into
/etc/apt/sources.list, and then use apt's "pinning" feature to declare
-testing my default branch. Subsequently, I can request the other
branch's current package at any time by including "-t unstable" on the
apt-get (or aptitude) command line. And, I subscribe to the security
alerts mailing list, so I can skim DSAs as they come out.
Why is this approach useful? Because I can normally just fetch
-testing-branch packages by default, and -- if a DSA says there's a
security problem -- can fetch the -unstable branch's new release of that
package without waiting for the quarantine period, if the DSA suggests
that would be useful.
The disadvantage, such as it is, is that one has to actually _read_ the
DSA, and then be prepared to manually fetch, apply, or otherwise
implement whatever fix suffices to address the indicated problem.
Usually, the (default) -testing package suffices. Failing that, most
often the -unstable one does. Or in rare cases (can't think of any)
not, and you have to do something else. The point is that it's less
automated -- the burden's on you to pay attention -- but it's still
pretty darned automated.
No, not just source only.
Yes. Here's an old FAQ on the quarantining process. (It may be
outdated: Caveat lector.)
"Testing FAQ" on http://linuxmafia.com/kb/Debian /
Yes. That's part of Debian Policy. If they aren't, it's a bug.
In the -unstable branch, and rarely in -testing, on rare occasions a new
package will want to overwrite a package already owned by a different
pacakge. I figure this is just the price you pay for being on a
development branch, and indicates a graceless one-time transition of the
file between packages. apt-get will halt and refuse to let newly
arrived package A overwrite that file that's owned by package B, and
will tell you so just before shutting down. At that point you do:
# cd /var/cache/apt/archives
# dpkg -i --force-overwrite A
...then resubmit the apt command, and you're back on your way.
Goodness gracious yes.
Impliedly, that's what it means. Of course, the person who wrote that
DSA might not have bothered to check the -unstable package carefully:
That's not his job. Upstream may have already done the fix, and the
package maintainer duly ground out packages containing it, without the
Security Team being fully aware. Or not. If you're on -unstable or
-testing, making sure you _get_ security fixes -- or shut off / remove
vulnerable packages and maybe use something else for the duration -- is
As a rough heuristic, one might generally assume that, if either
upstream or the package maintainer (or both) are minimally on the job,
and the security problem is significant, then new versions will be
quickly in the pipeline. Remember, some alleged security holes are
speculative and may not be realistic threats, some apply only for very
unlikely deployment configurations, etc.
Of course, if upstream _and_ the package maintainer are functionally
comatose, there could be a problem. In theory, the other Debian
developers will eventually notice and compensate for this, if necessary
doing NMUs (non-maintainer uploads) of fixed packages, or other
Try the debian-security mailing list.
 Debian Security Advisories.
Cheers, Remember: The day after tomorrow is the third day
Rick Moen of the rest of your life.
Re: Debian's policy regarding security updates
... see preceding post ...
Thanks a lot, Rick, for going to the trouble of posting a lengthy reply
to my queries. It certainly went a long way to clarify for me the
rather obscure matter of Debian's handling of security updates for
unstable and testing. Also, your policy and procedure for keeping your
sarge system secure seem eminently reasonable and ought to be applicable
to variants of Debian as well.
So from what I gather, once a patched package has moved into sarge, it's
rather safe to install it to replace the older, vulnerable package, i.e.
the likelihood that dependencies will be broken is low or nil. But for
it to show up in sarge will take at least two days after the DSA is
posted and in many cases may take much longer. E.g. in one of the
articles on the Linuxmafia website someone referred to 1700 packages
queued up in sid at one time because dependencies hadn't been resolved
in some of them on which they were all cross-dependent, thus holding up
the movement of the entire lot into sarge.
So if the security risk is high and one doesn't want to wait for the
patch to appear in sarge, one may have to install the patched sid
package. Is there any way of assessing the likelihood of breaking
packages when one installs such a freshly patched package from unstable?
In particular, if apt-get warns you about potentially breaking
packages and you force-overwrite the existing package any way and cause
damage, can the damage be reversed and the system be restored to its
previous state? How often has it happened to you or others you know
that you installed a security fix from sid and caused major damage? Has
it ever been necessary to reinstall Debian from scratch after an
untested sid security update busted your system?
Further, is there any forum in which folks post their experiences with
installing specific sid security updates? I see many references to or
comments on DSA's in linux.debian.security but I'm not sure how many of
these are indeed user reports about success or failure in installing sid
Finally, where can I find an up-to-date general assessment of the
security status of a single-user home desktop system that runs Debian
sarge and that's used in a typical fashion, i.e. principally for
Internet access, and that's also moderately well defended (broadband
connection with NAT router, iptables/netfilter firewall with pretty
strict reject rules, no services running, good passwords, fairly good
awareness of Internet security and privacy risks on the part of the
user, i.e. paranoia above average)? And is there a clearinghouse
somewhere that would guide this mythical non-pro non-sysadmin
security-conscious home user of Debian in this matter, i.e. alerting him
to DSA's that apply to his system, along with explicating the specific
nature and degree of risk?
Many thanks for your help!
Re: Debian's policy regarding security updates
Yes, exactly. That was immediately preceding the release of 3.0/woody
as the new Debian-stable branch, by the way -- and I'm pretty sure a new
and possibly-problematic libc6 package in -unstable was the one in
The possibility of packages not currently installable in -testing
because new versions of packages needed to satisfy dependencies are
still held up in quarantine is part of the reason I add -unstable
sources to my /etc/apt/sources.list and specify -testing as default: If
getting a new version of some package seems really important, and that
sort of dependency gotcha seems to apply, then adding "-t unstable" will
generally fix that. (That option causes not only the specified package
to be fetched from the named branch, but also any others required for
That seems, a priori, most likely to happen for several notorious
dependency hairballs: GNOME, KDE, Mozilla and related browsers.
Hmm. The methods that come immediately to mind:
o Do a spot-check on the debian-devel mailing list.
o Do a spot-check on the #debian IRC channel.
Just to be ultra-clear on this: I wan't talking about a warning of
"potentially breaking packages" exactly. It's just that apt-get is
ultra-cautious and will refuse to let any newly fetched package
overwrite any package "owned" by any existing package.
I've never seen any situation where the explanation wasn't that the file
in question was merely transitioning from package A to package B. And
thus I've never seen breakage result from that. But you could certainly
just reinstall A if putting in B seems to create problems.
Personally, not at all. But if you have concerns about that, you should
ask more broadly, perhaps on the debian-user or debian-security mailing
I should mention that I was very skeptical, when I first deployed
-testing on a couple of non-critical boxes. It's proven its worth over
time. (Note that I'm not a GNOME or KDE guy, and am a very long-time
I doubt it.
If you bother the developers, they'll hit you with a standard line, that
(translated) means "Please don't bother us":
1. If you want automatic Security Team coverage, run Debian-stable.
2. If you decide to run -unstable, please don't complain if it breaks.
You were warned, and get to keep both pieces.
3. If you decide to run -testing, don't complain about any shortfalls
in Security Team coverage, because the Debian Security Team FAQ
clearly states that they don't promise any. And don't complain
about possible dependency snarls (temporarily uninstallable
packages) because of differential rates by which packages clear
quarantine: Again, you were warned, and that's the way it works.
It should be noted that this situation has created an ecological niche
for such things as Ubuntu / Kubuntu, which you might consider to meet
your needs exactly.
Not that I know of -- but, honestly, skim-reading DSAs really isn't very
difficult or time-consuming. Really.
And do have a look at Ubuntu (cutting-edge GNOME-based desktop system,
forking off a copy of Debian-unstable every six months) and Kubuntu
(same system, except with KDE). You might like 'em.
I run Ubuntu on my G3 iBook -- except that I de-GNOMEified the thing,
Re: Debian's policy regarding security updates
Thanks a lot again, Rick, for all your effort to dispell my confusion
about Debian's security updates for unstable/testing. I've got a pretty
clear idea now about how this is being handled by Debian. And I got a
straightforward procedure to follow for any sarge packages that I wish
to update with security patches. It turns out the whole affair isn't
all that complicated and hazardous. If one proceeds carefully and knows
what one is doing, it seems nothing can really go seriously wrong and
any damage conceivably caused can be readily reversed.
I'm getting a sense that Debian is a well-crafted distribution. It's
been very stable on my system for more than a year of running it, more
so than Mandrakelinux v.9.1 and 10.0 which I was running for about 6
months before I switched to Debian. Although MDK had a lot going for
it, it was much more fickle than Debian.
I'd downloaded and checked out the live CD's of Ubuntu and Kubuntu, and
I finally got the new versions 5.04 working properly on my system. They
do seem to work well and have a nice polish. With the financial muscle
of a multimillionaire supporting a very energetic team of developers and
with their large and enthusiastic user groups these two may well become
the best supported cutting-edge Debian distributions. I'll have to
check out how the Ubuntu and Kubuntu teams are handling security
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